TWENTY-FIRST (Tanis) DYNASTY (1069. – 945.)
Tanis was a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt. In this period Egypt was divided in political and military way, and the illusion of unity is only reflected in the fact that the rulers were not directly called pharaohs but they were the supreme priests and their power was as strong as the pharaoh was. The reason why the Egyptian residence Pi-Ramesses was abandoned because of its branch of the Nile being silted up and its port consequently becoming unusable. Great achievement of these dynasty in the filed of architecture was Great temple of Amun-Ra in Tanis.
Smendes takes throne in 1070 BC as one of the few descendants of the Ramesside. Meanwhile the chief priests of Thebes, starting from Herihor, bear the title of Pharaoh, which gives a clear message about the political power of the clergy above the rulers in the north; in Tanis. Recognition of Pharaoh Government took place almost exclusively through dynastic marriages between children of the highest priests of Thebes and Pharaoh children. South Egypt, with the capital at Thebes considered North Egypt as other country.
Amenemnis Noferkare (1043. – 1039.)
Psusennes I (1039. – 991.)
He built temples at Tanis, where they buried rulers of this dynasty. In his grave archaeologists discovered cuneiform inscription. Generally, there were strong links with Mesopotamia so Egypt of this period is often mentioned in the Bible. Psusennes’s daughter got married to Herihor’s grandson. Psusennes I probably had good cooperation with the High Priests of Amun in Thebes during his long reign. High Priest of Amun from Thebes Smendes II (992-990) donated several grave goods to Psusennes I because archaeologists were found this goods in Psusennes II’s tomb.
Amenemope, Osorkon I., Siamun, Psusennes II.
Siamun’s daughter was married to the king Solomon. From this dynasty (all the way to 25.dynasty), changes in the techniques of mummification were noticed; they do not used kanopic jars anymore but they return mummified internal organs back into the body.