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Religions of Ancient Mesopotamia

Tammuz, alabaster relief from Ashur, c. 1500 bc; in the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Germany

Religions of Mesopotamia appeared in Sumerians culture and other peoples of Mesopotamia developed it; and it maintain in Antique period as well. Each Mesopotamian city had its own personal God protector, and to every God they built stepped temple shaped like a tower with a shrine at the top – the ziggurat.

 List of major Mesopotamian deities:
  • Ea – God of wisdom,
  • Tammuz – God of water and he was named the son of water depth,
  • Tishpak – God of ritual ablutions,
  • Ninazu – God which knows water,
  • Enlil – The Supreme God of the country, named the “Big mountain”
  • Anu – God of sky,
  • Sin – God of the moon,
  • Babar -God of Sun,
  • Ishtar – Goddess of nature, life, birth, and war, she was presented in the form of the star Venus.
  • God Anu – father of Gods
  • Goddess Ninmah – mother of Gods
  • Tammuz – True son.

In mythology’s art, major symbols were “tree of life” and “tree of the truth.”

Keepers of the house in Sumer:

The supreme trinity of Gods: Anu – God of sky, Enlil – God of Earth, Ea – God of water and knowledge.

Second place of deities: Sin – God of moon, Shamash – God of Sun, Adad – God of storms and Ishtar – Goddess of nature forces

Totemism: is the oldest form of human belief. Even the prehistoric people believed in the relationship between animals and plants, as there is a relationship between people. From this belief in plants and animals, a belief was developed that animals or plants are their specie or relative. They believed that animal or plant is their ancestor.



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