The skulls are discovered in southern Russia by German-Russian archaeologists team. Skull belonged to both male and female persons, and to the ages, it is estimated between 10 and 60 years of age. On each skull are rounded holes. It is clearly seen that the edges of the bone regenerate itself over time. It probably can only mean that these people lived with a long after surgery. Scientists are still divided in their opinion why eneolithic people performed surgery. There has always been a lively discussion about the reasons behind the operation. Two main purposes for trepanation are discussed: as a cure for physical/psychic disorders or as a ritual process. The only visible proof in skeletal material is a traumatic injury being treated by trepanation as a surgical therapeutic intervention. A connection between other diseases visible on the bone, for example, sinusitis, tumor, hydrocephalus.
For more information visit: Deutsches Archäologisches Institut or read scientific article “New cases of trepanations from the 5th to 3rd millennia BC in Southern Russia in the context of previous research: Possible evidence for a ritually motivated tradition of cranial surgery?”