Flora and fauna in Quaternary period

Natural conditions during the period of human appearance

In order to understand fully the physical world that humanity has inherited, we need to go back 70 million years of the Cenozoic era. Because period of present life does not include, as its name suggests, only...
Reconstruction of shelter in Middle Stone age. Image source:

Mesolithic – Middle Stone Age

The first phase of the Holocene epoch coincides with the culture of the Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age. Mesolithic is a transitional phase from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic period, i.e., from a man-hunter towards man who...

Ancient history

Circus Maximus in ancient Rome

The Circus Maximus was considered the largest and most famous circus complex in the ancient world. First and foremost, chariot races were held in the Circus. The Circus Maximus is located in Rome between the hills Palatine and Aventine. Today only land elevations from Circus were left,...

Medieval history

Viking ship in Oslo Museum

Vikings in Early European Medieval History

The reign of Charles the Great or Charlemagne is often referred to as a renaissance, a time when Western Europe sought recovery from the barbarian ravages that helped to...
Illustration showing Alaric in Athens 397 AD by Ludwig Thiersch from the book "Great men and famous women" 1894.

Alaric I (395-410) the first King of the Visigoths

Alaric descended from the aristocratic Balti dynasty. He gained his military abilities at the court of Roman Emperor Theodosius. The Visigoths united after the death of Theodosius and they...

Knight and Medieval Jousting

The medieval tournament is one of the enduring images of the Middle Ages, with knights fighting to impress beautiful and unattainable ladies. In reality, jousting was a dangerous sport...
Map of Northumbria 600-700 AD.

Northumbria 600-768

Æthelfrith († 616) was the king of Bernicia (from 592/593) and Deira, which merged into Northumbria. Æthelfrith was the son of Æthelric and the grandson of Ida, king of...

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