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Mesopotamia

Ancient Hebrew seals discovered around Jerusalem

Ancient Hebrews Compared to Other Near East Cultures

The Ancient Hebrews saw themselves as “God’s chosen people.” Their monotheism separated them from all surrounding neighbors while their belief in God’s covenants offered...
Postcard showing Byblos port

Phoenician cities Byblos and Sidon

Byblos, also known as Gubla, and later Gebal (in the Bible). According to Phoenician legend, Byblos was founded by the God El. Throughout time,...

Secret passage and skeleton from Hittite period founding in Turkey

During the excavations in archeological site Alacahöyük in central Anatolia archeologists uncovered secret passage or some kind of tunnel.  At the same location, archeologists...
mesopotamia-map

The term Mesopotamia and geographical position

Mesopotamia means 'between two rivers' and it is located between rivers - Euphrates and Tigris. Location of Mesopotamia was between the Armenian mountains in...
Akkadian Empire

Akkadian empire (2400-2007 BC)

Sumerian cities were fighting war very frequently among themselves, but none managed to achieve a dominant position. However, such frequent wars had some consequences;...
Tammuz, alabaster relief from Ashur, c. 1500 bc; in the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Germany

Religions of Ancient Mesopotamia

Religions of Mesopotamia appeared in Sumerians culture and other peoples of Mesopotamia developed it; and it maintain in Antique period as well. Each Mesopotamian...
Hammurabi bust

Old Babylonian empire and reign of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC)

Babylonia, and later Babylonian empire, was the former kingdom in Mesopotamia between 1900 BC or 1800 BC all the way to the fall in...
KassiteMap

Fall of Old Babylonian empire

Hammurabi's son and successor Samsu-Iluna (around 1749 – 1712 BC) managed to maintain power over most of the territory which he had inherited, but...
Detail view of Hammurabi code

Old Babylonian empire – Law Code of Hammurabi

Hammurabi’s Legal Code is a set of legal lists, which in a single legislative act Babylonian emperor Hammurabi issued in the 1792 – 1750...
Babylon-reconstruction-picture

Neo-Babylonian empire (616 – 539/8 BC)

Although weakened by Kassites invasion, Babylon was still an important economic center of Mesopotamia. Neo-Babylonian Empire belongs to the countries of the I Millennium...
Map of Assyrian empire (around 1000BC)

Assyria – Territory and economy

Assyria occupies a small territory along the upper course of the river Tigris, the territory that stretched from the lower course of Zab in...
Axe with Adad Nirari I. Image from: www.http://cartelen.louvre.fr/cartelen/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=24897

First rise of Assyria (1365-900. BC)

In the XV century BC, Assyria was under the rule of Mitanni emperors. Mitanni emperor Shaushtatar defeated the Assyrians and taken the city Ashur,...

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