Fall of Old Babylonian empire

Hammurabi‘s son and successor Samsu-Iluna (around 1749 – 1712 BC) managed to maintain power over most of the territory which he had inherited, but at that time already appeared serious problems and power struggles. Kassites, a coastal nation were trying very hard to gain control, and Rim-Sin II from Larsa was also trying to gain control. This is exactly what led to the weakening of the Babylonian power.

Kassites were mentioned for the first time in documents from Samsu-Ilune, and it seems that they were danger to Babylon through whole two centuries. At the same time, in the coastal areas along the coast of the Persian Gulf, the power of Ilum-ma-ilī ruler strengthen, which slowly conquered Babylon southern areas. Ilum-ma-ilī did not had strong heirs, and the rulers of the coast were more and more weakened, while like Babylon, they did not fall under the authority of Kassites. In Larsa the Rime-Sin II., nephew of Rim-Sin I managed to win independence, but after five years he was beaten and killed, and as the only three forces in the area remained Babylonia, Kassites and coastal countries. There is not much data about this period, and the only known fact is that the Hittites, led by King Mursili I, occupied Babylon in 1595 BC.

Very well known fact is that in the early 16th century BC in Babylon ruled one Kassites dynasty with King Agum III at the throne. In 13 century BC, there were two enemies of Babylon, Assyria under Tukulti-Ninurta reign in the north, and Elam under Untash – Nipirisha (Untash-Humban) reign in the south.

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