Middle Ages

Knight and Medieval Jousting

The medieval tournament is one of the enduring images of the Middle Ages, with knights fighting to impress beautiful and unattainable ladies. In reality,...
Black Death in London 1665.

Hygiene in Medieval Cities

Living conditions in the Middle Ages contributed to weakened immune systems that led to premature death when disease and pestilence ravaged communities. Poor hygiene and...
Woodcut illustration of the rape of Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius (artist Zainer Johannes, XVI century)

Rape in the Middle Ages

Rape is a crime of violence that modern, enlightened society has chosen to punish strenuously. Rape is also a sexual crime resulting in the...
Page from Anglo-Saxon-Chronicle

Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

English monks began the manuscripts that comprise the Chronicles during the reign of King Alfred (871-899). The Chronicles are unusual because they were written...
Statue of the explorer Pytheas of Massalia in Marseille.

Short historical facts about Island (9-10 century)

In 330 BC an explorer Pytheas of Massalia tried to sail from today's Marseilles to the north in order to find how far the...
Wotan takes leave of Brunhild (1892) by Konrad Dielitz.

Short about Viking religion

The Viking society of the seventh to eleventh centuries, when Viking raids and ocean explorations were at their height, was a largely pagan society...
Pope Boniface VIII consulting his cardinals (manuscript from 14 century)

Historical Basis of Church Structure and Hierarchy in the Middle Ages

The Church in the Middle Ages forged a context to preserve integrity and structure. The rise and growth of Christianity in the Mediterranean world...
Replica of the Norman village.

Life in England at the Time of the Norman Conquest

The Norman Conquest brought huge changes for the ruling and landowning classes of medieval England. But for poorer people, there were fewer changes. Although...
Interpretation of the Normans by painter Albert Kretsschmer (19 century)

Normans and Normandy (793-1203)

The term Normans (latin Normanni) in Middle Ages used for members of Germanic tribes that coming from the "north" especially from Scandinavia. In 8 and 9...
Mosaic Saints Augustine and Gregory

Pope Gregory the Great

Gregory the Great became pope in AD 590 at a time the western Church was desperate for a strong, wise leader. Under Pope Gregory...
Reconstruction of the Viking village in Hadeby (Denmark)

The Different Levels of Viking Society

Viking society had several different tiers, ranging from the king, through to powerless slaves. Each person had a defined role in a society defined...
Ruins of The Abbey of St Bertin.

Forbidden Fruit: Male-Female Relations in the Medieval Cloister

Medieval monks and nuns lived by rules that demanded three vows: chastity, obedience and poverty. Problems arose with all three at times, and oft...

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