Economy of Eneolithic period

Eneolithic people after conquering production of metal tools significantly expanded the scope of their activities, and their work, which was done every day, became more and more productive. The use of new resources for the work was of particular importance for the overall development of the economy, especially for growing crops, various edible plants and animals.

In the Eneolithic Age largely was present the use of wooden ploughs, primarily in the area of Asian and European continent. The physical appearance of tools for ploughing depended of at least two factors. The first factor was related to the character of the land and the other factor was related on the seeding cultures.

All these tools are known under the common name of “plough”. The first form of the plough was only plough, which was until recently used in mountainous areas.

After domesticating animals, and making plough, Eneolithic people began to use some animals for towing, actually for ploughing the land with the help of animals. While in some areas, as towing force, people used only donkeys, in other areas those were oxen’s. Much later for such work, people began to use horses.

Sickle from Bronze age
Sickle from Bronze age

It was not long after making first plough, when a man managed to make harrow, which make irreplaceable tool for farming. A need to increase yields from the land was always present. This need influenced the creation of new equipment, whose use made huge progress in farming. With plough and harrow, Neolithic people began abandoning hoe agriculture and they moved on to plough agriculture. Along with that came suppression of established vegetable crops and instead of vegetable crops people started to cultivate various crops.

Thanks to the new productive grain agriculture, people were able to provide for themselves a sufficient amount of food, which was necessary for daily use. Besides that, they were able to accomplish certain excesses of various foods.

Plough agriculture, among other things, was a great stimulus for the further development of the economy, particularly in the livestock breeding. It has consistently expressed the need for towing animals, because without them farming was almost impossible. One part of the yield from the land was used for livestock feeding.

The sources of animal feed did not increase to the extent and intensity in which have been increasing cattle herds. That is why farmers were forced to change the way of life and the way of breeding livestock. In fact, they first switched to semi-nomadic, and then on nomadic herding i.e. all year long cattle grazing. Thus, over time, cattle ranchers began to spread over the steppes of Europe, Asia and northeastern Africa, and in that way they completely separate themselves from the farmer.

Farming and livestock breeding over time became main occupation of many people. The separation livestock breeders from farmers are considered the first great social division of labour. At the same time, it is the beginning of specialization in the production and regular exchange. The most important results of labour division represent a permanent excess of food achieved in economy, then the emergence of private property over farms and means of production, and finally in the end an slavery.

At the same time, it began to develop the exchange of goods. A special production method has determined a specific kind of exchange. People exchanged only accidental excess of food. The exchange became regular thing when it was introduced first social division. It appeared at the time when each tribe could direct its manufacturing activities on to those activities for which there were the most favourable conditions. In this regard, the human race became more and more productive and useful. Specialized farming, livestock breeding and other households regularly created excess of food, which were according to their needs exchanged among themselves. At the time of collective labour and collective property over manufacturer’s excess of food, exchange has been carried out with the mediation of the gender or tribal chiefs. After individual production was introduced, and with it private property a new way of exchange was developed whose name was so – called individual exchanges.

During the Eneolithic period happened very large ethnic, social and cultural changes. Great Migration of the population completely disrupted the rhythm of the former way of life. New economic base, and with it new social relations, within the original community shaped different territorial distribution of cultural groups