Hyksos rule over Egypt (1.650 – 1.550 B.C)

Historians thought that the Hyksos were coming to Egypt during a long period and they have taken power in the Delta during inner dynasty conflicts. Soon they conquered entire Egypt, which happened due to the weakness of the state, and due to new weapons – horses and chariots.

The Egyptians called them hekau hasut (“foreign rulers”). A hieroglyph letter for Hekau is a shepherd’s crook, so according to Manetho Hekau are “rulers of Pasir”, and their arrival is described as a bloodbath.

Their ethnic origin has not been fully understood, but historians believed that they are an offshoot of the Semitic group of people. This nation was actually a mixture of several Asian nations, which were likely lead by Mitanni. From this period comes, and some of the best copies of literary and scientific works such as “The Lind mathematical papyrus “, “Westcar Papyrus” and “Hymn diadem.”

Salitis (Sekerher)
Shortly after he became the ruler, he conquered Memphis and Lisht. This is how he formally became the ruler of the whole Egypt and founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty.
The power of the Hyksos was based on military occupation.

Bnon, Sesi, Meruserre Jakobher, Khian

Apophis I, II, III
These rulers deliberately took Apophis name, which among the Egyptians was the most detestable as the god of darkness and chaos. Later on, they founded a new capital at Avaris in the Delta, and usurped the name of the Egyptian city Hut-urt.

SIXTEENTH DYNASTY (1.650 – 1580)

Theban dynasty independently ruled in the Hyksos age. There are very little date saved and therefore it is impossible precisely to determine a reign of these pharaohs. 17. Dynasty is developed from this one.

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