Late Period of Ancient Egypt – Libyan dynasty (945 – 715.)


Great conquerors had a mercenary army composed out of the Nubians, Sherdens and Libyans. Among them stood out Libyan tribe Mashuash. Members of this tribe ruled the Delta and they managed to impose their authority over Egypt. Their capital became Bubastis.

Shoshenq I (945 – 924)

Historians believed that he took power peacefully because he was married to the Psusennes II daughter. Probably Psusennes had no male heir so he was succeeded by his son-in-law. Sheshonq set his son Iuput as the supreme priest of Thebes, and the family Pinedjem (at that time was a chief priest of Thebes) run away to the south in Nubia (today’s Sudan) where they helped to form the local theocratic state. Sheshonq tried to centralize the authority, but he did not succeed in that. Delta and Middle Egypt were divided among their loyal commanders.  Around 925. Shoshenq I attacked Palestine which was separated from Judah. He also robbed the Temple of Solomon and all the treasure he moved to Egypt. He reined Nubia.

Osorkon I (924. – 889.)

The Bible mentions him as Zerah.

Sheshonq II (around 890.)

During his time delta was split in to two areas. Petubastis in Leontopolis was declared King and Thebes acknowledged him as a king. That is how 22. and 23. Dynasty ruled at the same time.

Takelot I, Osorkon II, Takelot II, Sheshonq III. (825. – 773.), Pimaj, Sheshonq V, Osorkon IV.



Pedubastis was probably one of those commanders (or descendant) which Sheshonq gave the land. He rebelled against the government in Bubastis and he proclaimed himself as a king in Tanis. All this is reflected on the government in Bubastis and due to it, this line slowly weakened.

Iuput I, Sheshonq IV, Osorkon III, Takelot III, Rudamon, Iuput II.

Ruins of Hermopolis
Ruins of Hermopolis


Tefnakht (727. – 720.)

He founded the dynasty in Sais, and at the same time, Hermopolis had Nemaret (Nimlot) as a king, Peftjauawybast was a king in Herakleopolis, Osorkon in Bubastis and Iuput in Leontopolis. Tefnakht ruled over the Mashauasha while Libu (Libyans) tribes hold parts of the Delta under their command.  After conquering the Delta, Memphis, and Hermopolis, he came close to Thebes, but then a Piye attacked him. He established an authority in the Delta, but as soon as he left, Tefnakht again took the power into his hands and proclaimed himself as king and he reigned over Memphis and Heliopolis.

Bakenenref (Bokkhoris) (720. – 715.)

He was apparently killed and burned by a Shabaka from twenty-fifth dynasty, and in that way he ensured him ‘’second death’’; special brutality which made possible the resurrection of the deceased.