Ashur-nasir-pal-II relief in Brooklyn Museum. Image source:

Second rise of Assyria (884-612. BC)

Ashuranasirpal II (Ashur-nasir-pal)  (884-859 BC) made the foundations of military power in Assyria. Historians so far know 14 major campaigns in 24 years of...
Elam map

The term Persia and Medes empire

The term Persia has been used for centuries, mainly in the west, for determination of the southern Iran region, which was formerly known as...
Drinking horn (rhyton) from Acheamenid probabbly VI century BC. Image source:

The organization and economy of the Persian (Acheamenid) empire

The management of the Persian empire was centralized and organized as follows: Emperor The clerks, which in the Emperor's name managed individual branches of...
Cyrus II relief

Persian – Acheamenid empire (559-330 BC)

Cyrus II (559-530 BC) - He was the son of Anshan (southwester Iran) King Cambyses I and Medes Princess (Medes - northwestern Iran and...
Phoenicia map


Phoenicians lived in the coastal cities of the Levant, north of Palestine. Their language and culture were closely related with the western Semitic languages...
Replica of the Phoenician ship. Image source:

Economy of Phoenicia and organization of government

Phoenicians were engaged in livestock breeding and agriculture. They created a system of terraced farming, irrigation was properly deployed on the terraces. The terraces...
Hattusha gates

Old Hittite Kingdom 1650-1460 BC

The Hittites are Indo-European people, which in II Millennium BC penetrated into Asia Minor and started to reign over indigenous Proto–Indo-European. The Hittites founded,...
Hittites and Mitanni map

Hittite new empire (1430 – 1200 BC)

In 1595 BC Hittite ruler Mursili I (also Murshilish) went to Babylon, which was the largest military action during the Hittite Old Kingdom. After...
David and Saul (oil on canvas by Julius Kronberg 1885.)

Israel and Judah (1027 – 930 BC)

The first Israel state-building period is the Period of judges (Sefer) - from entering into the Promised Land, to the election of the first...
Jeroboam, king of Israel in Bible

Israel and Judah (900-720 BC)

After Solomon's death, representatives of the northern tribes demanded the implementation of reforms, which Rehoboam promised them. He was Solomon's son. Since Rehoboam did...
Tunnels for water supply under Jerusalem during Hezekiah reign.

Judah (715-539 BC)

The fall of Samaria, Israel's capital, took place in 721 BC. Israel has become the province of Assyria, and Judah has preserved its independence,...

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