Ancient History

Dipylon Oinchoe inscription. One of the oldest known examples of the Greek alphabet around 750 B.C.

The letter of the ancient Greeks

From 1900th to 1600th BC pictogram or the hieroglyphic writing was used. Linear A has been used since 1700th to 1400th, and Linear B...
Temple of Apollo in polis Syracuse.

The oldest cities (poleis) of the ancient Greece

The ancient Greeks have never formed a common state in which all could join together. Their favorite form of government was the polis (city-state)....
Map of Greek Colonization

Ancient Greek Colonization

Greeks have moved from their home land at different times and established settlements. Most of Greek settlements were established in the 8th, 7th and...
Detail showing king Menelaus intends to strike Helen. Struck by her beauty, Menelaus drops his swords. Pottery location: Louvre Museum Paris

Spartan Society

Southeastern branch of Peloponnese ending with peninsulas of Malea and Tainaron was the ancient Laconia. Its most productive part was the valley between the...
The structure of Spartan government.

Spartan system of government

According to the legend, from period of the king Lycurgus all existing Spartan laws were grounded. Lycurgus had conceived also political institutions, established after...
Attica Map

Ancient Athens – early politics and government

Attica peninsula, which raised steeply from the Aegean Sea, in the far eastern branch of central Greece. Attica had a field, which provided a...
Releif of Draco. Photo: www.nationalreview.com/article/353325/case-draco-kevin-d-williamson

Draco and Solon era in Athens (621-593. B.C)

DRACO- Athenians entrusted Thesmothet Draco in 621 BC to write laws. Dracon was the oldest legislator of Athens. Before Dracon law, trials in Athens,...
A part of Peisistratos aqueduct in Athens.

Peisistratos and Cleisthenes era in Athens (561-508. B.C)

Peisistratos (Pisistratus)- after the departure of Solon from Athens, the political struggle was continued. For the government in Athens fought three parties: the party...
Scythia and Persian empire map

The Greco-Persian Wars (First Persian invasion of Greece 492-490 B.C)

Persian emperor Darius I 513 BC. went to Europe. He crossed the Bosporus and invaded Thrace. He then headed north across the Danube and...
A map showing Xerxes invasion of Greece. Source of map: "www.cais-soas.com/News/2001/November2001/13-11.htm"

The Greco-Persian Wars (Second Persian invasion of Greece 480-479 BC)

Darius died in 486 BC and was succeeded by his son Xerxes, who had suppressed the rebellion in Egypt and moved to Greece. The...
Athens Acropolis (Citadel)

Athens pentecontaetia

It was a fifty-year period between the Greco-Persian and Peloponnesian wars. In this period, the Athenians have gained dominance in the Aegean Sea, economically...
Peloponnesian war alliances. Map source: http://www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Phil%20281b/Maps/peloponnesian_war_alliances.gif

Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C)

In 431 BC began the war between Athens and the Peloponnesian League cities. On the side of Athens were fighting members of Delian-Attic Alliance...

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