Middle Ages

Mosaic in Haghia Sophia showing Virgin Mary and the Emperors Justinian and Constantine

Justinian’s Achievements in the 6th Century

By the 6th Century the Eastern Roman Empire had fully transformed itself into the Byzantine Empire. Justinian, the last emperor to use Latin, ruled...
Children in Middle Ages

Children in the Late Middle Ages

Childhood during the medieval period was impacted by disease, poor nutrition, and social perceptions. The Late Middle Ages alleviated some of these factors. To what...
Viking weapons from National museum of Ireland

Viking Weapons

In the early medieval period, the Vikings were one of the most feared groups of people. Raids and wars were nothing new during the...
Georg Braun, map of Venice in his Civitates orbis terrarum

Venetian trade (XI – XIII century)

During the Middle Ages, the Venetians held both religious and commercial power; a combination which allowed them to influence western Europe considerably. The Venetians...
Vortigern and his wife Rowena by painter William Hamilton 1793.

England in early Middle Ages

Germanic pirates were raiding British shores as far back as the third century. These raids were purely for purposes of looting. They brought their...
Skylitzis_Chronicle_VARANGIAN_GUARD

Who were the Varangians?

The Varangians were Scandinavians who traveled from Jutland and Sweden. They were first mentioned in the Russian Primary Chronicle in 859. In 862, Slavic...
Clovis in the battle of Tolbiac by painter Ary Scheffer 19 century

Franks and Merovingian dynasty (450-511 AD)

The Franks were a Germanic tribe; their ancient homeland was located around the western part of the Baltic Sea and in northern Germany. The...

How Medieval European cities started to develop?

Compare to living in the villages, citizens in cities during the period of Middle Ages having more rights and they enjoyed status of Freeman....
Parchment from 15 century showing mariage of Sigebert and Brunhilda. Curent location: Bibliothèque nationale de France

Merovingian dynasty of the Franks (511-714 AD)

The Frankish kingdom was elective, but the election of the king was limited to the Merovingian dynasty. Since there was no distinction between state...
Thomb of Clovis in the Basilica of St Denis (Paris)

Social system and rule under the Merovingians

The king was the ruler of the state and kingship was elective, but the only possible candidates were descendants of the Merovingian dynasty. Since...
Gundobad statue in Geneva (Switzerland)

Kingdom of the Burgundy (406-534)

The Burgundians were an east-Germanic tribe. Firstly they were settling around the Baltic Sea, and on the island Bornholm. They were driven from the...
Migrations of Germanic tribes (378-439). Source of Map: http://courses.wccnet.edu/~jrush/121outline10.html

Vandals (165-536 AD)

The Vandals were a east-Germanic tribe. They were settling around the Oder River area in the first century. They had two main groups, the...

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